Electric cars become mainstream battery disposal test Governments
In the traditional vehicle life to a close, people coming era of much-anticipated electric car, including the 2011 listing of Nisaan pure electric vehicles Leaf, the Chevrolet Volt electric car abundance Prius plug-in hybrid car and so on. As a core component of the battery is a lot of institutions and investors are optimistic.
However, people are increasingly concerned about a problem: so many battery electric vehicles will be another burden on the environment? You know, a small button battery can be about 60 million liters of water pollution, equivalent to the amount of water your life; while a conventional battery No. 1 mercury rot in the ground, to make around 1 square meter any agricultural land lost value. The current EU countries sold 800,000 tons per year car batteries, 19 tons of industrial batteries and 16,000 tons household batteries. When the electric car era, the global figure will be more terror.
If the battery pack that used to be like garbage heap by the roadside, but also an exaggeration. Even when the car battery life after the end of a lithium-ion batteries used still retains most of its energy storage capacity. Many analysts have forecast, after 2010, the secondary market for used batteries will grow substantially.
However, opponents fear that once this becomes a reality, we need a lot of infrastructure to collect these waste batteries, and also re-evaluate their value, and then re-sell them to consumers. This can be achieved in the short term it?
Was right, but now there is a ready example is the car to start the car loaded for the regular 12-volt lead-acid batteries. This battery is loaded every year to 70 million new vehicles built, it contains lead and sulfuric acid, is a garbage dump in one of the most dangerous items.
According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency statistics, only in the United States, almost every year takes 100 million vehicle start battery, of which 99% has been recovered and recycled. Because users in the U.S., if not to return used batteries manufacturers, retailers or wholesalers, each bought a new battery will need to pay 3-5 U.S. dollars.
A conventional 12-volt battery, nearly 97% of the lead can be recycled. The electrolyte, in particular, sulfuric acid, can be in and then put to other use, such as conversion into sulfate, made of fertilizer, or dyes. Even the plastic battery cover, can also be reused.
China is now able to see the bike everywhere, and its batteries are mostly lead-acid batteries. Electric bicycle battery is a consumable, average about 1 year to be replaced. Luyuan Electric Vehicle Co., Ltd. Zhejiang Brand Center Manager, Xiao Ding said: "The current scrap lead-acid batteries, basically could be restored, after the repair efficiency of up to 80% of the new battery, the second repair efficiency of 50% or more."
The company's current approach is: for any brand of electric cars and cars lead-acid batteries, can still be repaired for by special technology to repair, back into use; of the damage can not be repaired completely lead-acid batteries, recovered by qualified business lead and zinc processing, refining of secondary lead.
Many provinces and cities also clear that the market for electric bicycles, purchase a new battery must return the used batteries, or not to sell a new battery.
But this recovery is not always good. Environmental organizations Blacksmith (Blacksmith) that the world's 10 worst pollution problems, one is the removal of lead-acid batteries caused the error.
There are a lot of recycling waste is the number of clandestine laboratories, they will be recycled to the lead-acid batteries do not have the conditions stored in the open space or warehouse, there is no qualification process, resulting in a large number of lead waste and waste of a lot of emissions.
In Switzerland and Japan, each dealing with a ton of waste batteries, a government subsidy of waste battery handling business about 5000 yuan; in Korea, for every ton of battery manufacturers to pay a certain amount of margin to cover recycling, processors charges and appoint a special plant for processing; Some battery manufacturers state taxes or impose environmental management of battery disposal companies tax breaks and so on.
After a long period of development, lead-acid batteries have already matured, and was once widely used to power passenger cars. But its capacity is low, bulky, polluting all the shortcomings, it was gradually abandoned by the auto companies. In contrast, lithium-ion battery energy storage unit weight is high, the price is not expensive, non-toxic. So now the new energy vehicles in general tend to use lithium iron phosphate and manganese lithium batteries.
Lithium-ion battery pack for the first time since last year to be used in the car - the first car to use lithium-ion battery car is a Mercedes - Benz S400 2009 model of the hybrid - a growing number of other cars manufacturers have begun to do the same thing.
At the same time, recycling batteries has become the electric car manufacturers can not avoid the problem. In the global hybrid market faces staggering Toyota Motor Corporation, has for its dealers on how to properly dispose of the car like the Prius as the nickel-metal hydride battery waste, and the establishment of standard procedures.
Next, we must look at the performance of governments.
Battery handle Raiders
Alkaline manganese batteries
Common equipment: alkaline manganese batteries can be used for any device, from cameras and flashlights into the remote control will use it.
Recovery methods: ordinary trash thrown into it. Because alkaline batteries have to stop using mercury. If you decide to alkaline batteries into the trash, you can take the following measures to prevent the disclosure of: 1. With multiple battery in a plastic bag; 2 sealed with tape at both ends of each battery.
Recycling Results: These batteries can be recycled steel and zinc, which are two very valuable metal.
Common equipment: nickel-cadmium battery that is low-cost version of the rechargeable alkaline battery can be charged hundreds of times. Many brands of rechargeable batteries are nickel metal hydride batteries often.
Recovery methods: Tips, part of the price of nickel-cadmium batteries, including the cost of recycling. As the toxic metals cadmium, can not be discarded in landfills. In the supermarket, there will be nickel-cadmium and nickel metal hydride battery collection points.
Recycling Results: heating the metal to heat the metal nickel and iron from the low-temperature separation of zinc and cadmium; some of the metal after solidification in the melt, while the other is a metal oxide reprocessing.
Lithium ion battery
Common equipment: lithium battery used in one of the most advanced rechargeable technology, generally used for mobile phones and consumer electronics. These batteries can be used as electric vehicles power supply.
Recovery: Do not store the lithium battery or throw garbage dump, one of the reasons is that when they are exposed at high temperatures, may overheat and explode. In most cases, dealing with mobile phones, laptops and other electronic equipment, the company will handle this battery. Therefore, you can easily find recycling sites.
Recycling Results: These batteries and nickel-cadmium battery recycling the same method to generate useful metal.
Silver Oxide Battery
Common equipment: This is a relatively common button batteries, typically used in calculators, hearing aids and watches. In addition to its small size, the button battery Other features include a longer shelf life and can be used as usual at low temperatures.
Recovery methods: silver oxide batteries and other mercury-containing button cell, it must be recycled. In most cases, there will be professionals to replace the battery, so you can ask them to help you with the recovery of batteries.
Recycling Results: usually been crushed in the recovery process to recover useful heavy metals.
Common equipment: used to supply automation equipment, such as cars, boats, motorcycles.
Recovery method: similar to other cells. If you buy a new battery, prior to ask about the old battery recycling methods.
Recycling Results: recycling, lead-acid batteries will be divided into: plastic, lead and sulfuric acid. Polypropylene plastic will be reprocessed into new battery cases; lead sheet will be reprocessed for use in new batteries. Acid will be out in cooperation and through the sewage treatment plant for cleaning; otherwise, will be converted into sodium sulfate, used clothes detergent.
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